V phonology

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The sound system of Nognese reminded our scouts of Italian. They nicknamed it 'V' because of its open syllables.

Vowels

V has five vowel phonemes that resolve to seven surface vowels. It has some diphthongs, but they're fairly transparent.

  • /a/ => [a]
  • /e/ => [ɛ] when stressed; [e] otherwise
  • /i/ => [i]
  • /o/ => [ɔ] when stressed; [o] otherwise
  • /u/ => [u]

Consonants

Geminates are present, represented in scouts' Latin orthography with double letters.

The /k/ phoneme tends to palatalize to [tʃ] before front vowels /e/ and /i/.

man\plc bil lbd den/alv psa ret pal vel
nasal m n ɲ
stop p b t d ʈ ɖ k ɡ
affric ts dz tʃ dʒ
fric f v s z
trill ʙ r
approx j w
lat l ʎ

Some dialects have [ʙ] as an allophone of /br/, or [ʈ:] and [ɖ:] as allophones of /rt/ and /rd/.

Accent

Accent is fairly but not always predictable, and not always marked in the standard orthography. Most words with a diphthong are accented on the diphthong. Most words with a geminate consonant are accented on the syllable preceding the geminate. Otherwise, there appears to be a primary accent on the penult, with a secondary accent on the first syllable.

Sound changes

Compared to the protolanguage, V has lost glottal stops, simplified some consonant clusters to geminates, and reduced velar fricatives to null. This can be seen especially with V words and their C cognates.