User:Tepples/Monovalent McGuffey

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This project aims to translate the first of the McGuffey Readers as if it were a literal translation from a monovalent language.


  1. A monovalent sentence has no direct object. Verbs are intransitive; prepositions have an object.
  2. Some languages treat adjectives as verbs too. This means lexical adjectives (other than articles, demonstratives, and genitive pronouns) should appear only as the complement of a noun.



The dog.

The dog ran.


The cat. The mat.

Is the cat on the mat?

The cat is on the mat.


The man. A pen.

A pen is with the man.

Is the pen in his hand?

It is in his hand.


A fat hen. A big rat.

The hen is fat; the box is below.

The rat ran from the box.

Can the hen run?


See Rab! See Ann!

See! The hat is with Rab.

Can Ann run to catch Rab?


Ann can run to catch Rab.

See! The hat is with her.

Now Ann can pat on Rab.

Let me pat on Rab, too.


Ned has given; the hen ate.

The hen is black.

She has left from the nest.

See the eggs in the nest!

Will the hen let Ned get?