Difference between revisions of "V grammar"

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As in Spanish, most adjectives follow the noun, except for demonstratives and cardinal numbers.
 
As in Spanish, most adjectives follow the noun, except for demonstratives and cardinal numbers.
 
Numbers precede the noun for much the same reason they follow in Japanese, namely that they act as nouns meaning a set of that size, taking the specific noun as a genitive: English "three fingers" becomes something more like "set-of-three [of] fingers".
 
Numbers precede the noun for much the same reason they follow in Japanese, namely that they act as nouns meaning a set of that size, taking the specific noun as a genitive: English "three fingers" becomes something more like "set-of-three [of] fingers".
Likewise, [[wikipdia:determiner|determiners]] (articles and demonstratives) are seen as pronouns taking an appositive: "this ball" parses as "this, [a] ball"
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Likewise, [[wikipedia:determiner|determiners]] (articles and demonstratives) are seen as [[wikipedia:Determiner phrase|pronouns taking an appositive]]: "this ball" parses as "this, [a] ball"
  
 
== Pronouns ==
 
== Pronouns ==

Revision as of 05:16, 5 October 2012

Due to scouts' lack of complete information on the Nognese lexicon, the article presents some examples using English glosses.

Word order

Nognese is fairly consistently head-initial, and the overall order of a clause is verb-subject-object (VSO). But some auxiliary verbs have what is called "split inflection", which pushes the main verb into the object position resulting in AuxSVO order; the verb and object behave together as a noun clause. English has AuxSVO as well in a few marked cases: questions ("Is anybody reading this?"), negative statements elided from a "there is" statement ("Ain't nobody reading this, OSHA"), and negative statements with "nor" ("nor does anybody care").

Before the verb

A sentence adverb may occupy the position before the verb; this happens especially in wh-questions. Otherwise, a noun phrase may move in front of the verb to mark it as a topic, but it leaves a pronoun behind: "Gus, is he [a] poli."

Noun phrases

Nouns act head-initial as well. As in Spanish, most adjectives follow the noun, except for demonstratives and cardinal numbers. Numbers precede the noun for much the same reason they follow in Japanese, namely that they act as nouns meaning a set of that size, taking the specific noun as a genitive: English "three fingers" becomes something more like "set-of-three [of] fingers". Likewise, determiners (articles and demonstratives) are seen as pronouns taking an appositive: "this ball" parses as "this, [a] ball"

Pronouns

Nognese uses personal pronouns declined for case, which Celtic scholars call "conjugated prepositions" for some odd reason.

nom acc gen dat
1st sing gi mi femmi lammi
2nd sing si si fessi lassi
3rd sing an, ana in, inna fen, fenna lan, lanna
1st incl noi inoi fennoi lannoi
1st excl moi imoi femmoi lammoi
2nd pl soi isoi fessoi lassoi
3rd pl ani ini fenni lanni
indefinite i fe la

An means "he" and ana means "she". The third-person singular definite pronouns ending in -na are used with nouns that have feminine gender. The definite articles are identical to the third-person masculine singular (-n) pronouns. Definite articles, not indefinite ones, are used with place names and family or lineage names. However, a genitive construction (noun of noun) omits the genitive article in the middle except where the object is a place name or lineage name, in which fen means "from": bobba Mirco "Mirco's ball", but Mirco fen Gaspar.

Fen (lit. "from the") and lan (lit. "to the") are also used as conjunctions, meaning "because" and "therefore".

Nouns

Nouns of masculine gender end in a consonant or o; feminine ones end in a. Plurals are genderless; most are formed by removing the final vowel (if any) and adding i. There is another plural formed by ci; its meaning is unclear.

Verbs

Verbs do not conjugate for number and person, seeing as the subject (which is not a null subject) generally immediately follows the verb as if it's already a suffix.

Tense, modality, and aspect are fairly orthogonal. The past tense is expressed by a prefix ia- before the verb. The consonant after verb stem's accented vowel becomes geminate if it is not already a geminate or cluster, and in some verb stems, this vowel becomes o. An initial vowel of the verb stem may be dropped. This is not used with single actions in the very recent past.

An auxiliary verb rai, roughly meaning "will", expresses the future tense or irrealis mood. Another auxiliary verb inca ('nca after a vowel), roughly meaning "keep", denotes an ongoing, repeated, or explicitly present action. Inca is not used with state of being verbs. These auxiliary verbs pull the subject in front of the verb: rai <subject> lan <verb> <object> or inca <subject> lan <verb> <object>. Commands thus begin rai si lan, which is often abbreviated in speech to lan alone when not in rai si lan! "do it!".

Dialects

One dialect habitually omits final i, and all its plurals use the ci paradigm.